5. Emergency stop

Emergency stop

Introduction
The emergency stop can be taught from lesson five onwards as all instructors teach this brief at different stages. You could be at various standards of your training, so could be at prompt or at the trained stage. Also you should be getting better at reading the road in front, beside and even behind your vehicle while you are driving. 

Teaching Strategy 
In this lesson you are going to learn the emergency stop exercise, so imagine a car pulling out in front of you at a junction or even a child run out in front of your vehicle you need to know how to take control of your vehicle and stop under full control. 

An observant driver would rarely have to stop in an emergency as he/she would always be on the lookout for potentially dangerous situations and act accordingly (anticipation and planning). Nevertheless a situation may arise that could not have been anticipated and consequently your only course of action might be to undertake an emergency stop. 

Lesson aims 
The aim of today’s lesson is to complete the emergency stop exercise using the brakes and clutch, keeping full control of the vehicle at various speeds and have the correct observations before you pull off .  So it’s very important you understand your overall stopping distances on this lesson. 

Objective 
The objective is to understand how to brake effectively and when to dip the clutch to gain the best stopping distance while using engine braking. During this lesson you will be assessed on your general drive but I will be giving you as much support as you need. 
Lesson brief 
At the start of the lesson you will be Q&A on use of mirrors and why 
Use of mirrors before you:- 
• Speed up 
• Slow down 
• Change direction


At the training location
Only one in three candidates will get the emergency stop exercise so you are not be guaranteed to get it on your practical test. However, if you did, your examiner will pull you up on the left hand side of the road and then will explain to you once you have pulled over. 
“I would like you to do the emergency stop exercise. My instruction will be to stop; I will also put my right arm towards the dashboard before I say it. I will also look over my right shoulder to make sure it is safe to do the manoeuvre”.

Before you start the exercise
P.O.M up and drive on when it is clear behind you. When you get your speed up to 25/30mph you will be given the instruction to STOP!! At this point you do not need to check your mirrors, as you should be checking them every 6-10 seconds and know what is behind you. You need quick reactions to stop safely whilst maintaining full control. 

Use of pedals 
Brake first (footbrake) and then put the clutch down. 
If you press the clutch first the car no longer has engine braking as you have separated the engine and gearbox. You will therefore lose efficiency when stopping and it will probably take longer to stop and may become difficult to control. 

Timing of reactions 
When I give you the instruction of STOP…. I want you to react by using your brakes first then put the clutch down. 
An easy way to get the timing right is by Saying STOP in your head. Press the brake on the S and press the clutch down on the P

Once you have stopped 
Once you have stopped you will be assessed on:- 
● The overall time it has taken you to stop. 
● The correct use of the brake and the clutch. 
● All around observations before you drive on. 

Then once the vehicle is safe (handbrake on and the gear is in neutral) you will be asked to drive on. 
Make sure you do your P.O.M routine and drive on when it is safe to do so. 
Take extra observations before moving away checking both blind spots.
Additional information
Keep both hands on the steering wheel until the car has stopped, this will help keep control of the vehicle when you brake hard, as the weight of the car is thrown forwards (due to the engine’s weight). 
This gives you a firm grip on the steering wheel to maintain direction or correct skids if one occurs. 

Do you know what is ABS? 
Answer - Anti-lock Braking System (ABS).
Controlling a skid If the car skids in a straight line during an emergency stop you have pressed the brake to hard so simply ease off the brake and re-apply the footbrake with less pressure.. This will allow the tyres to regain their grip on the road surface. You could also lose control of the vehicle with it swerving to the left or the right. If this happens, look and steer in the direction you want to go. Speed and stopping distances The distance it takes to stop a vehicle depends upon the weight, speed, brakes, tyres and suspension of the vehicle. It also depends upon your reaction speed and thinking time and the road surface itself. The Highway Code contains a guide to normal stopping distances assuming a typical dry road surface and average vehicle characteristics. 
Reflect & Review
So remember your instructor is there to HELP you. So on your driving lesson if you have any uncertainties or need anything rewording or recapping to make things any clearer, just ask. 

Your training vehicle is fitted with dual controls and if necessary, will be used throughout your lesson. These are there for your safety so we can step in to keep you safe. 

So don’t worry if any issues arise, we will aid and guide you VERBALLY or PHYSICALLY and we can go over the situation. 

Risk management 
Physical control of your vehicle 
● The aim is for you the student to have full control of this lesson and like previous lessons have full talk through on the new topic and then reducing the support throughout with you making decisions as best you can. 
● Your instructor’s job is to analyse any faults that may occur in this lesson and put them right. 

Talk about any issues and any situations that happened on the lesson and how to correct them going forward. 

Level of instruction on your lesson 
● Full talk through. 
● Prompt. 
● Independent. 

End of lesson 
● Feedback at the end of your lesson. 
● Student’s responsibility during lesson and any improvements. 
● Plan for the next lesson.
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