1. Moving off and stopping

Moving off and stopping.

Getting Moving
Introduction Before starting your driving lessons you must make sure you have a valid provisional driving licence (category B) and are physically fit. 

 Eye Sight On a driving test you must be able to read a car number plate at a distance of 20.5 metres (about 5 car lengths) or 20 metres if it is the new-style number plate. New-style number plates were introduced on 1st September 2001and are easily identifiable. They start with two letters i.e. AB51 ABC. 

When applying for your driving licence from the DVLA, you should let them know if you have: 
  •  Any need to wear glasses or contact lenses. 
  •  Any visual condition that affects both eyes (not including short or long sight or colour blindness). 
  •  Any visual condition that affects your sight (not including short or long sight or colour blindness), for example:- 
  •  if you have sight in one eye only. If you have had sight correction surgery you should declare this when you apply for your provisional licence.
You can’t read the first/second number plate http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Motoring/LearnerAndNewDrivers/LearningToDriveOrRide/DG_4022529 

Teaching Strategy 
The aim of the first lesson is for your assigned instructor to take you to a safe location and to carry out above number plate check, check your licence and then to introduce you to the cockpit drill and the main hand and foot controls of the vehicle, and if time, how to move off and stop under full control with your instructor giving you full talk through. 

Lesson aims, objectives and goals of today’s lesson. 
The aim of this lesson is for you to complete and understand the cockpit routine and know the main hand and foot controls. Then practice moving off and stopping safely with full talk through from your assigned instructor, reducing support throughout you lesson. By the end of your lesson you will be introduced to the P.O.M, P.O.S.M and the M.S.M routines making proper use of the accelerator, clutch and handbrake. On the way to the location you will be demonstrated the pull push method of steering.  

 Cockpit brief The cockpit drill is a simple sequence that must be carried out each time that you sit in the driver’s seat on your driving lessons as everyone is not the same build and size.

Cockpit drill

Doors
  • Make sure that all the doors and boot lid are firmly shut. 
Seat
  • Alter the base of the seat up and down adjust it until you can get a good view of the road ahead.
  • Ensure that you can fully depress the clutch pedal without over stretching your left leg by adjusting the base of  your seat.
  • Ensuring that you can operate all the foot pedals easily with the ball of your foot. 
  • Adjust the back of your seat so that you can reach all of the steering wheel with your arms slightly bent.
  • Make sure that the head restraint is adjusted correctly to protect your neck.
Mirrors
  • Adjust all of your mirrors so that you can obtain a clear view of the road behind and to the side of your vehicle. 
  •  Use your left hand to adjust the interior mirror and be careful not to touch the surface of the mirrors o with your fingers (frame it with the back window).
  • The interior mirror is flat and gives you a true view. The exterior mirror is curved and convex.
Seatbelt
  • Fasten your seatbelt and ensure your passengers fasten theirs also.
  • Ensure no twists when you apply your seatbelt..
  • The driver is responsible for seatbelt wearing by children under 14 years of age.

The main controls

Accelerator pedal
  • The accelerator (gas) pedal is used with your right foot.
  • To control the speed of the vehicle gently press/release the pedal, this will increase or decreasing the flow of fuel to o the engine.
  • The vehicle will only move when the car is in gear and the clutch plates are together (explained more on this lesson).
Footbrake
  • This pedal is also operated with the right foot.
  • Place your right foot more in line with the brake pedal and swivel the right foot from the brake pedal to the accelerator whilst also keeping your heel on the floor. When you press this pedal the brake lights (on the back of the car) will come on.
  • This is to warn other drivers that o you are slowing down or stopping. 
  • The footbrake operates brakes on all four wheels and is used to slow/stop the vehicle. 
  • The pedal should be pressed progressively harder (i.e. squeeze with ease - press like it’s a fresh egg and don’t break the egg when you lightly press it) until you have stopped in a safe, legal and convenient place.
Clutch
  • The clutch is used with the left foot.
  • The clutch breaks the link between the engine and the gearbox (drive wheels) while the vehicle is running.
  • To operate the pedal you press it firmly to the floor and then release it slowly and smoothly.
  • Slow use of the clutch will ensure you pull away smoothly with minimum amount of stalling.

Hand controls

Handbrake
  • The handbrake is used to hold the car still once you are stationary.
  • The handbrake is connected to the rear wheels with a cable.
  • When you apply the handbrake, press the button with your thumb and pull the lever upwards as far as it will go, then release the button.
  • To release the handbrake pull the lever up and press the button slightly, then push the lever down.
  • NEVER apply the handbrake when the car is moving as you could lose control of your vehicle and skid out of control.
Gear lever (stick)
  • The gear lever is used with the clutch to select the appropriate gears (1st and maybe 2nd on your first lesson).
  • There are usually five forward gears and one reverse gear. Change gear every 10 mph, also the number of engine revolutions can help too.
  • Between the gears there is a position called neutral, when the lever is in this position no gear is selected and the engine is safe to start.
  • The higher the gear the greater the pulling power (therefore the lower the engine speed).
  • Think back to when you was riding a bike … You never started in 5th gear (smallest cog) as you would find it extremely difficult to move off.
  • The same applies when pulling off in a vehicle.
Steering wheel
  • You should normally hold the wheel with your hands at the ten to two position and no lower than quarter to three.
  • Most control is gained with the pull and push method to turn the wheel.
  • The steering wheel is used to turn the front wheels when changing direction.
  • (N.B Steering is dealt with in more detail in Lesson 3).
Indicators
  • The indicator stalk is usually located to the left or right of the steering wheel. 
  • The stalk is designed for fingertip control.
  • To signal left or right you simply move the stalk the direction you wish to go.

Moving off and stopping

Starting the engine

  • Before starting the engine you should check that the handbrake is on and that the gear lever is in the neutral position.
  • Turn the ignition key clockwise and immediately release the key as the engine starts to avoid damaging the starter motor.
  • Once you have started the engine you now need to learn how to prepare the car for moving off.
You will be using the basic routines of Mirrors-Signal-Manoeuvre and Preparation-Observation-Manoeuvre routines.
M.S.M - Mirrors - Signal - Manoeuvre
P.O.M - Preparations - Observations - Manoeuvre
Prepare the car to move

  • Put the clutch down and select first gear.
  • Put your hands back onto your steering wheel.
  • Slowly move the clutch up a £1 coin thickness at a time, until the sound of the engine drops achieving the biting point. Then lightly press the accelerator pedal to achieve a lively hum from the engine, then hold both feet still.
(BE ARE NOW READY TO MOVE OFF).
Observations (Mirrors/Signal)

  • Do your mirror checks, this is called the 6 point check. Always check the path side first with your observations. 
  •  Firstly look in the interior mirror then the left (nearside) door mirror, and then look over your left shoulder.
  • Next check the interior mirror again, then the right (offside) door mirror and then look over your right shoulder (your offside blind-spot).
  • If it is safe to proceed (Consider your Signal to the right). Then put your hand to the handbrake.
Manoeuvre (Moving away)

  • When you are sure that it is safe to move off release the handbrake.
  • Make an extra right mirror and blind spot check as you start to move.
  • Bring the clutch up a £1 coin thickness at a time and slightly press the gas pedal to generate sufficient power to move (See-saw your feet).
  • When the car moves raise the clutch slowly up and press the gas pedal a little raising the vehicle speed to about 5-7mph.
  • Bring the clutch up (very slowly) all the way and rest your foot by the side of the pedal on the floor.
  • Steer to your normal driving position about a 1metre from the curb. Cancel your signal (if necessary).
  • Press the gas pedal to pick up speed and look well ahead.

Stopping somewhere safe, legal and convenient 

Use the Mirrors-Signal-Manoeuvre routine for stopping.
  • Check your Interior and left mirror to ensure it is safe.
  • Signal left if necessary.
  • Steer closer but parallel to the kerb (drain width from the curb, 6/12inches).
  • Press the foot brake progressively harder to stop (squeeze with ease).
  • While breaking, depress the clutch pedal fully down before you stop.
  • Once you have parked up on the left hand side of the road you will need to make the car safe by applying the handbrake and putting the gear stick into neutral.
  • Remove your feet from the pedals and cancel the signal (if necessary).
Reflect & Review
So remember your instructor is there to HELP you, so on your general drive, if you have any uncertainties or need anything rewording or recapping to make things any clearer, just ask.

Your training vehicle is fitted with dual controls and, if necessary, these can be used by your instructor throughout your lesson at appropriate times. So don’t worry if they are used, your instructor can step in to aid and guide you VERBALLY or PHYSICALLY if issues arise. 

Risk management 
  • Physical control of your vehicle 
  • The aim is for you, the student, to have full control of this lesson with you making decisions as best you can.
  • Your instructors job is to analyse any faults that may accrue in this lesson and put them right. 

Q&A and talk about any issues if the situations happen on drive. 

Level of instruction on your lesson 
  • Full talk through. 
  • Prompt. 
  • Independent. 

End of lesson
  • Feedback at the end of your lesson. 
  • Students responsibility of lesson and improvement. 
  • Plan for the next lesson.
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